High cholesterol levels can cause your arteries to become blocked - leading to coronary heart disease, heart attack or stroke. Finding out about high levels of cholesterol can help you to make the positive lifestyle and dietary changes needed to improve your chances of a long and healthy life.
Total Cholesterol is a measurement of the total amount of cholesterol in the blood, this includes low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterols. It is used to produce hormones for development, growth and reproduction. Total cholesterol tests are used to estimate the risk of developing heart disease.
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High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) is a form of cholesterol which is classified as the ‘good’ cholesterol. Its main function is to help remove cholesterol from the heart’s arteries. HDL tests are used to estimate the risk of developing heart disease.
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Total Cholesterol: HDL Ratio is a calculation which indicates the amount of ‘good’ cholesterol there are in terms of the total cholesterol in the body. HDL helps to remove cholesterol from the heart’s arteries. Total cholesterol: HDL ratio test is used to estimate the risk of developing heart disease.
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Non-HDL Cholesterol is the number of total cholesterols without the high-density lipoprotein (HDL), the ‘good’ cholesterol. NON-HDL cholesterol tests are used to investigate the lipid profile during the estimation the risk of developing heart disease.
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Triglyceride is a type of fat stored in the body’s tissues and can derive from foods such as butter and oil. Triglyceride tests are used to investigate the lipid profile during the estimation the risk of developing heart disease.
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Checking your levels of HbA1c is how to confirm if you have (or are at risk of developing) diabetes. Unmanaged or undiagnosed diabetes is one of the leading causes of mortality. For anyone who already knows they have diabetes, regular HbA1c checks are essential to monitor progress.
Haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test is used to measure the average level of blood sugar over the past two to three months and is commonly used to diagnose and monitor diabetes. The sugar is called glucose which builds up in the blood and binds to the haemoglobins in the red blood cells. HbA1c test will then measure how much glucose is bound and is used during the diagnoses of diabetes.
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There are many types of hormones that support different bodily functions and processes including growth, metabolism, appetite and fertility. Hormone imbalances or deficiencies may be to blame for a wide range of symptoms and conditions.
Oestradiol is a form of oestrogen and the main female hormone produced by non-pregnant women. The hormone has an important role in the development of female physical features and reproductive functions. Oestradiol tests are used for the evaluation of ovarian functions. It can also be used to diagnose the cause of precocious and delayed puberty in girls as well as used to monitor hormone replacement therapy in peri-pausal and menopausal women.
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Follicular Stimulating Hormone (FSH) a reproductive hormone that is produced by the pituitary gland in the brain. FSH stimulates the growth and development of unfertilised eggs during the menstrual cycle in women and initiates the production of sex hormones such as oestradiol and progesterone. FSH is also used to stimulate the production of sperm in men. The FSH hormone is often tested with other sex hormones such as LH, testosterone, oestradiol and progesterone for diagnose infertility and pituitary gland disorders in men and women.
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Luteinizing Hormone (LH) is a reproductive hormone that is produced by the pituitary gland in the brain. This hormone is used to regulate the menstrual cycle and ovulation by stimulating the ovaries to produce other reproductive hormones in females whereas in men, LH stimulates and controls testosterone. The LH test is used to determine any reproductive problems.
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Prolactin is a hormone produced by the pituitary glands in the brain. The main role of prolactin is to promote lactation (breast milk production) in women during pregnancy and after childbirth. A prolactin test is used to diagnose infertility in both men and women as well as menstrual problems and erectile dysfunction.
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Full Blood Count (FBC) provides information about the different cells in the blood, these include the red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Red blood cells contain haemoglobin which carries oxygen to the different tissues in the body whereas white blood cells control the immune system and protects the body from foreign invaders such as bacteria and viruses. FBC testing are used as a screening test for various disorders like anaemia and infections.
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Inflammation is a process by which your body's white blood cells protect you from infection from external bacteria and viruses. Checking for inflammation can help diagnose a wide range of conditions.
Iron Studies (6
Iron studies are a set of blood tests used to measure the amount of iron carried in the blood and stored in the bodies tissues. Iron deficiency can be the cause of a wide range of symptoms such as fatigue, chest pains and a shortness of breath.
Iron is a mineral which is needed for making red blood cells, which transports oxygen in the blood, and important for healthy muscles, bone marrow and organ function. Iron is measured to show the amount of iron in the blood. Low levels of iron can indicate anaemia whereas high levels can indicate liver disease.
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Total Iron Binding Concentration (TIBC) is the maximum amount of iron that can be transported in the blood. Iron is used for the transportation of oxygen in the blood. TIBC tests are used to determine iron status and its absorption. This can be used to help diagnose Anaemia and iron overload conditions such as Haemochromatosis. Your TIBC will be impaired if you also have existing liver disease.
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Ferritin is a blood protein that is used to store iron. Iron is used for the transportation of oxygen in the blood. It is measured to understand how much iron the body stores. Ferritin test are used to diagnose anaemia and liver disease.
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Transferrin is an iron-binding glycoprotein that is produced by the liver. It is used to transport iron which transports oxygen in the blood. Transferrin tests are used to determine iron status and can be used to diagnose anaemia.
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Creatine Kinase is an enzyme which is found in the skeletal and heart muscle as well as a small amount in the brain tissue. Creatine kinase test can be used to diagnose and monitor muscular injuries and diseases such as muscular dystrophy.
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Kidney Function (5
Your kidneys play a vital role in keeping your body functioning including the removal of waste products, releasing hormones to regulate blood pressure and controlling the production of red blood cells. A healthy kidney function is vital to your overall health and wellbeing.
Urea is a waste product of the amino acids found in proteins. It is released into the bloodstream and the kidney filters urea out of the blood where it is excreted in the urine. Urea tests are used to show how well the kidneys are working as well as an indicator for diseases affecting the kidneys and liver.
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Creatinine is a waste product produced by the muscles during contraction. It can be found in the blood and urine as it is excreted by the kidneys. Creatinine tests are used as an indicator to whether the kidneys are working normally.
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Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) is a measurement of the glomeruli. Glomeruli are the filters in the kidney used to filter waste products from the blood. GFR tests are used to detect and monitor changes in the kidney status.
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Calcium is an important mineral which is found in the bones as well as circulating in the blood. It has a range of functions and is essential in bone formation and blood clotting. In the blood, calcium can either be free and active or they can be bound to proteins like albumin. Calcium tests are used to diagnose and monitor different conditions correlating to the bone, heart and kidneys.
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Adjusted Calcium is also known as the corrected calcium, calcium is an important mineral needed for body function. This is a calculation which uses the measurement of the protein albumin to calculate how much calcium are free in the blood. Calcium tests are used to diagnose and monitor different conditions correlating to the bone, heart and kidneys.
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Liver Function (8
The liver is responsible for many of the bodies essential functions such as regulating blood sugar levels, fighting infections and detoxifying your blood. Good liver function is vital to your overall health and wellbeing.
Albumin is a protein specifically produced in the liver. Its function consists of keeping fluids in the bloodstream as well as transporting substances like hormones and vitamins throughout the body. Albumin tests can be used to help diagnose and monitor diseases of the liver and kidney.
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Globulin is a protein produced in the liver by the immune system. It is important in liver function, blood clotting and fighting infections. Globulin test can be used to diagnose conditions including liver damage or disease, kidney disease and autoimmune disorders.
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Total Protein is the total amount of two proteins found in the serum of the blood, these are albumin and globulin. Albumin is needed to keep fluid in the bloodstream whereas globulin is an essential part of the immune system. Total protein tests are used as an indicator to there being a problem with albumin or globulin levels.
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Alanine Transaminase (ALT) is an enzyme which can be found mostly in the liver and small amount in the heart, kidneys and the skeletal muscle. It is released into the bloodstream during an injury of the heart, liver, kidney and skeletal muscle. ALT tests can be used to diagnose liver disease.
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Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GGT) is an enzyme mostly found in the liver and is also present in the gallbladder, spleen, pancreas and kidney. It is a significant enzyme used in the liver metabolism of drugs and other toxins. GGT tests can be used to detect liver disease and bile duct injury.
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Total Bilirubin is a test which measures the amount of bilirubin in the blood. Bilirubin can be found in bile to help digest food. It is also produced from broken down haem, which is old red blood cells that used to carry oxygen around the body. Total bilirubin test can be used to diagnose and monitor liver diseases and certain types of anaemia.
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Thyroid disorders are common but often remain undiagnosed. If your thyroid isn't functioning properly it can cause tiredness, mood problems and weight issues.
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) are made by the pituitary gland in the brain to stimulate the thyroid gland (located by the throat). The hormones that are produced are used to regulate weight, body temperature and muscle strength. Levels of TSH are measured as it is an indicator of thyroid disease and is commonly tested with Free T4 and Free T3.
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Free T4 (free thyroxine) is a hormone produced by the thyroid gland. This hormone is involved in several body functions including metabolism and growth. It can be used for the diagnosis of thyroid diseases such as hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism as well as aiding the diagnosis of female infertility problems. Free T4 is commonly tested with Free T3 and TSH.
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Vitamins are a group of substances that our bodies need for normal cell function, growth and development. Vitamin deficiencies can be the cause of a wide range of common symptoms and conditions.
Vitamin D is a vitamin which is used in the regulation of calcium and magnesium absorption from the gut, it is also important for the growth and health of bones. Vitamin D comes from two sources; it can be ingested from foods and supplements or be produced in the skin once it is exposed to sunlight. Vitamin D tests are used to identify vitamin D deficiency and to monitor disease that interfere with fat absorption like Crohn’s disease.
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Vitamin B12 is a vitamin which is necessary for the formation of red blood cells, tissue and cellular repairs and nerve health. It can be found in animal products such as poultry, milk and eggs. Vitamin B12 tests are used to help diagnose the cause of anaemia.
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Folate (Vitamin B9) is a vitamin which is necessary for the formation of red blood cells, tissue and cellular repairs and is important during pregnancy. It can be found in leafy green vegetables, yeast and citrus fruits. Folate tests are used to help diagnose the cause of anaemia.
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