Muscle & Bone (3 Biomarkers)
Muscle & Bone Health
The adjusted calcium blood test measures the amount of free, metabolically active calcium in your blood. This is essential for healthy teeth, bones and other tissues.
Calcium is an important mineral which is found in the bones as well as circulating in the blood. It has a range of functions and is essential in bone formation and blood clotting. Calcium tests are used to diagnose and monitor conditions relating to the bone, heart and kidneys.
A small amount of creatine kinase in the blood is normal. Higher amounts can mean a health problem. Depending on the type and level of creatine kinase found it can be a sign of damage to the muscles, heart or brain.
Liver Function (8 Biomarkers)
The liver is responsible for many of the body's essential functions such as regulating blood sugar levels, fighting infections and detoxifying your blood. Good liver function is vital to your overall health and wellbeing.
Alanine Transaminase (ALT) is an enzyme which can be found mostly in the liver and in small amounts in the heart, kidneys and the skeletal muscle. It is released into the bloodstream during an injury to the heart, liver, kidney and skeletal muscle. ALT tests can be used to diagnose liver disease.
Albumin is a protein specifically produced in the liver. Its function consists of keeping fluids in the bloodstream as well as transporting substances like hormones and vitamins throughout the body. Albumin tests can be used to help diagnose and monitor diseases of the liver and kidney.
Alkaline Phosphate (ALP) is an enzyme found mostly in the liver and bone. ALP tests can be used to diagnose liver or bone disease.
Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) is an enzyme produced by the liver. It is released into the bloodstream during an injury of the heart, liver and skeletal muscle. AST tests can be used to detect liver disease.
Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GGT) is an enzyme mostly found in the liver and is also present in the gallbladder, spleen, pancreas and kidney. It is a significant enzyme used in the liver metabolism of drugs and other toxins. GGT tests can be used to detect liver disease and bile duct injury.
Globulin is a protein produced in the liver by the immune system. It is important in liver function, blood clotting and fighting infections. Globulin tests can be used to diagnose conditions including liver damage or disease, kidney disease and autoimmune disorders.
Total Bilirubin is a test which measures the amount of bilirubin in the blood. Bilirubin can be found in bile to help digest food. It is also produced from broken down haem, which is old red blood cells that used to carry oxygen around the body. Total bilirubin tests can be used to diagnose and monitor liver diseases and certain types of anaemia.
Total Protein is the total amount of two proteins found in the serum of the blood, these are albumin and globulin. Albumin is needed to keep fluid in the bloodstream whereas globulin is an essential part of the immune system. Total protein tests are used as an indicator to there being a problem with albumin or globulin levels.
Full Blood Count (20 Biomarkers)
A full blood count can be used to check your overall health and may help detect a wide range of issues such as infection, anaemia and leukaemia.
Basophils are one of the several kinds of white blood cells you have in your body. Basophils are a part of your immune system and are created inside of your bone marrow.
This is a laboratory calculation based on the number of Basolphils.
Eosinophils are a kind of white blood cell that helps fight disease. Eosinophils do two important things in your immune system: curb infections and boost inflammation, which can help you fight off a disease.
This is a laboratory calculation based on the number of Eosinophils.
This test tells how much of your blood is made up of red blood cells. A low score may be a sign that you don’t have enough iron, the mineral that helps your body make red blood cells. A high score could mean you’re dehydrated or have another condition.
This is the protein in your blood that holds oxygen.
Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell. They’re an important part of your immune system.
This is a laboratory calculation based on the number of Lymphocytes.
Mean Cell Haemoglobin Concentration is the average concentration of hemoglobin in your red blood cells.
Mean Cell Haemoglobin is the average mass of hemoglobin (Hb) per red blood cell (RBC) in a sample of blood.
Mean Cell Volume (MCV) measures the average size of your red blood cells.
Mean Platelet Volume (MPV) tests show the mean number of platelets you have in your blood.
Monocytes are a type of white blood cell in your immune system. Monocytes turn into macrophage or dendritic cells when an invading germ or bacteria enters your body. The cells either kill the invader or alert other blood cells to help destroy it and prevent infection.
This is a laboratory calculation based on the number of monocytes as described in the section above.
Neutrophils are a type of white blood cell. They make up the biggest number of all kinds of white blood cells. They kill and digest bacteria and fungi to help your body fight infections and heal wounds.
This is a laboratory calculation based on the number of neutrophils.
A platelet count is a lab test to measure how many platelets you have in your blood. Platelets are parts of the blood that help the blood clot.
A red blood cell (RBC) count is a blood test that tells you how many red blood cells you have.
A red cell distribution width (RDW) test measures the differences in the volume and size of your red blood cells (erythrocytes)
The White Cell Count measures the number of white cells in your blood.
Kidney Function (3 Biomarkers)
Your kidneys play a vital role in keeping your body functioning including the removal of waste products, releasing hormones to regulate blood pressure and controlling the production of red blood cells. A healthy kidney function is vital to your overall health and wellbeing.
Creatinine is a waste product produced by the muscles during contraction. It can be found in the blood and urine as it is excreted by the kidneys. Creatinine tests are used as an indicator of whether the kidneys are working normally.
Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) is a measurement of glomerular function. Glomeruli are the filters in the kidney used to filter waste products from the blood. GFR tests are used to detect and monitor changes in the kidney status.
Urea is a waste product of the amino acids found in proteins. It is released into the bloodstream and the kidney filters urea out of the blood and excretes it in the urine. Urea tests are used to show how well the kidneys are working as well as an indicator for diseases affecting the kidneys and liver.
Iron Studies (5 Biomarkers)
Iron studies are a set of blood tests used to measure the amount of iron carried in the blood and stored in the bodies tissues. Iron deficiency can be the cause of a wide range of symptoms such as fatigue, chest pains and a shortness of breath.
Ferritin is a blood protein that contains iron and it is an important measure of levels of iron storage in the body because it can provide an early sign of iron deficiency. It If your level is low, it may mean you have iron deficiency. High ferritin levels can indicate iron overload but also things like inflammation, liver disease, rheumatoid arthritis or thyroid disease.
Iron is an important mineral that is involved in red blood cell metabolism and oxygen transport. Iron studies are used to identify iron deficiency or overload states.
Total iron binding concentration measures the blood's ability to attach itself to iron and transport it around the body. If you have iron deficiency (a lack of iron in your blood), your total iron binding capacity may be high.
Transferrin is a protein found in the blood that transports iron through the blood to various tissues such as the liver, spleen, and bone marrow. When your body's stores of iron run low, your liver produces more transferrin to get more iron into your blood. The result of this is that your transferrin becomes less saturated with iron and this is why a low level of transferrin saturation can mean that you are suffering from iron deficiency.
Unsaturated Iron Binding Concentration (UIBC) is the amount of transferrin that is reserved for the iron transportation. Iron is used for the transportation of oxygen in the blood. A high unsaturated iron binding concentration may indicate iron deficiency but it can also be increased in pregnancy and with the use of oral contraceptives. A low unsaturated iron binding capacity may occur if someone has malnutrition, inflammation, kidney or liver disease.
Vitamins (3 Biomarkers)
Vitamins are a group of substances that our bodies need for normal cell function, growth and development. Vitamin deficiencies can be the cause of a wide range of common symptoms and conditions.
Vitamin B9 (also known as folate) is essential for DNA production and the development of red blood cells. A lack of folate can cause anaemia, increase your risk of heart disease and bowel cancer. It can increase your risk of infertility.
Vitamin B12 is a vitamin which is necessary for the formation of red blood cells, tissue and cellular repairs and nerve health. It can be found in animal products such as poultry, milk and eggs. Vitamin B12 tests are used to help diagnose the cause of anaemia.
Vitamin D is a vitamin which is used in the regulation of calcium and magnesium absorption from the gut, it is also important for the growth and health of bones. Vitamin D comes from two sources; it can be ingested from foods and supplements or be produced in the skin once it is exposed to sunlight. Vitamin D tests are used to identify vitamin D deficiency and to monitor disease that interfere with fat absorption like Crohn’s disease.
Thyroid (2 Biomarkers)
Thyroid disorders are common but often remain undiagnosed. If your thyroid isn't functioning properly, it can cause tiredness, mood problems and weight issues.
Free T4 (free thyroxine) is a hormone produced by the thyroid gland. This hormone is involved in several body functions including metabolism and growth. It can be used for the diagnosis of thyroid diseases such as hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism as well as aiding the diagnosis of female infertility problems. Free T4 is commonly tested with TSH.
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) are made by the pituitary gland in the brain to stimulate the thyroid gland (located by the throat). The hormones that are produced are used to regulate weight, body temperature and muscle strength. Levels of TSH are measured as it is an indicator of thyroid disease and is commonly tested with Free T4 and Free T3. It will give you a very good indication of whether your thyroid is functioning normally or not which can lead to tiredness, mood problems and weight issues.
Diabetes (1 Biomarkers)
Checking your levels of HbA1c is a way of confirming if you have (or are at risk of developing) diabetes. Unmanaged or undiagnosed diabetes is one of the leading causes of mortality. For anyone who already knows they have diabetes, regular HbA1c checks are essential to monitor progress.
Haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test is used to measure the average level of blood sugar over the past two to three months and is commonly used to diagnose and monitor diabetes. The sugar is called glucose which builds up in the blood and binds to the haemoglobin in the red blood cells.
Cholesterol (7 Biomarkers)
High cholesterol levels can cause your arteries to become blocked - leading to coronary heart disease, heart attack or stroke. Finding out about high levels of cholesterol can help you to make the positive lifestyle and dietary changes needed to improve your chances of a long and healthy life.
This is the percentage of Total Cholesterol that consists of ‘good’ (HDL) cholesterol.
High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) is a form of cholesterol which is classified as the ‘good’ cholesterol. Its main function is to help remove cholesterol from the heart’s arteries. HDL tests are used to estimate the risk of developing circulatory diseases such as heart attacks and strokes.
Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) is classified as the ‘bad’ cholesterol, this causes cholesterol build-up and blockage in the arteries. LDL tests are used to estimate the risk of developing circulatory diseases such as heart attacks and strokes.
Non-HDL Cholesterol is the number of total cholesterols without the high-density lipoprotein (HDL), the ‘good’ cholesterol. Non-HDL cholesterol tests are used to investigate the lipid profile during the estimation of the risk of developing circulatory diseases such as heart attacks and strokes.
Total Cholesterol is a measurement of the total amount of cholesterol in the blood, this includes low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterols. It is used to produce hormones for development, growth and reproduction. Total cholesterol tests are used to estimate the risk of developing circulatory diseases such as heart attacks and strokes.
Total Cholesterol: HDL Ratio is a calculation which indicates the ratio of ‘good’ cholesterol in terms of the total cholesterol in the body. HDL helps to remove cholesterol from the heart’s arteries. Total cholesterol: HDL ratio tests are used to estimate the risk of developing circulatory diseases such as heart attacks and strokes.
Triglyceride is a type of fat stored in the body’s tissues and can derive from foods such as butter and oil. Triglyceride tests are used to investigate the lipid profile during the estimation of the risk of developing circulatory diseases such as heart attacks and strokes.
Inflammation (1 Biomarkers)
Inflammation is a process by which your body's white blood cells protect you from infection from external bacteria and viruses. Checking for inflammation can help diagnose a wide range of conditions.
C-reactive protein is a protein made by your liver. A high C-reactive protein result can be a sign of acute inflammation. It may be due to infection, injury or chronic disease.
Minerals (1 Biomarkers)
Minerals are essential elements that our bodies need to develop and function properly. Mineral deficiency is very common and can lead to a wide range of symptoms and conditions.
Magnesium is a mineral found mainly in the bone, but it can also be seen in the blood. It is used for energy production, muscle contraction and for maintaining strong bones. The body regulates the magnesium levels by regulating the amount being absorbed from the intestines and the amount being excreted in the urine. Magnesium tests are used to investigate the severity of kidney problems as well as diagnosing and monitoring gastrointestinal disorders.
Hormones (1 Biomarkers)
There are many types of hormones that support different bodily functions and processes including growth, metabolism, appetite and fertility. Hormone imbalances or deficiencies may be to blame for a wide range of symptoms and conditions.
Testosterone is an important sex hormone for both men and women. In men, it is made in the testicles. In women, it is made in small amounts in the ovaries.
It is important for normal male sexual development. During puberty (in the teen years), testosterone helps boys develop male features like body and facial hair, a deeper voice, and muscle strength. Too much testosterone in men can cause shrinking of the testicles, impotence, an increased risk of heart attack and prostate enlargement with difficulty urinating. Too little can cause fatigue, irritability, depression, erectile dysfunction and reduced muscle mass.
Combined with oestrogen, testosterone helps with the growth, maintenance, and repair of a woman's reproductive tissues and bone mass. Too much can cause acne, excess hair on the face and body, irregular periods and mood changes. Too little can cause low libido and weight gain.
Gout (1 Biomarkers)
Gout is a common and complex form of arthritis that can affect anyone and is caused by high levels of uric acid. Once diagnosed there are ways to manage symptoms and prevent recurrence.
Uric acid is a chemical created when the body breaks down substances called purines. Purines are normally produced in the body and are also found in some foods and drinks. Most of the time, a high uric acid level occurs when your kidneys don't eliminate uric acid efficiently. Things that may cause this slow-down in the removal of uric acid include being overweight, having diabetes, taking certain diuretics (sometimes called water pills) and alcohol.